• A diabetic patient with a family history of three or more consecutive generations of members affected by diabetes.
  • Children and young adults with persistent and stable mild fasting hyperglycemia. Frequently this hyperglycemia is found incidentally during a routine check-up. The parents may have mild type 2 diabetes.
  • A diabetic patient diagnosed with diabetes during the first 6 months of age.
  • Children and young adults diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and a strong family history of diabetes with one or more of the following:

-Good glycemic control outside a normally expected honeymoon period not on insulin (usually <3 years).

-Not developing ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin.

-Good glycemic control on a small dose of insulin.

-Detectable C-peptide measured when on insulin.

-One parent diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in their 20s, 30s or 40s. There may also be an affected grandparent, although frequently diagnosed after 45 yrs.

  • A “type 1″ diabetes patient who at the time of diagnosis has negative blood testing for autoantibodies.
  • A “type 1″ diabetes patient who generates a significant amount of insulin years beyond diagnosis (detectable blood levels of c-peptide, proinsulin, and/ or insulin).
  • A “type 1″ diabetes patient with good glycemic control on a small dose of insulin for many years.
  • A “type 2″ diabetes patient who has been on different oral antidiabetic medications with no effect on both fasting blood glucose and HbA1c.
  • A “type 2″ diabetes patient with strong sensitivity to sulphonylureas resulting in hypoglycemia.
  • Diabetes together with pancreatic insufficiency (symptoms such as diarrhea and gas).
  • A diabetic patient with renal cysts or family history of renal cysts and early onset non-insulin dependent diabetes. Developmental kidney disease or abnormalities of the kidney. Genital tract malformations. Hyperuricemia and early onset gout.